- 25 years after Waco | Freedom of Conscience and the Rule of Law
- The US-Japan Alliance and Soviet competition | Some thoughts on “Thinking About Libertarian Foreign Policy”
- Japan’s rent-a-family industry | In Search of Firmer Cosmopolitan Solidarity
- The story of the skull of a victim of the Indian Uprising of 1857 | Myths of Sovereignty and British Isolation, III
- Reviving India’s classical liberal party | Classical Liberalism and the Nation State
- The decline of regional American art | A History of Regional Governments
- Michelle Pfeiffer keeps getting better and better | On the paradox of poverty and good health in Cuba
- “It was the most devastating loss in the history of the Library.” | No, natural disasters are not good for the economy
When teaching the machine, the team had to take some care with the images. Thrun hoped that people could one day simply submit smartphone pictures of their worrisome lesions, and that meant that the system had to be undaunted by a wide range of angles and lighting conditions. But, he recalled, “In some pictures, the melanomas had been marked with yellow disks. We had to crop them out—otherwise, we might teach the computer to pick out a yellow disk as a sign of cancer.”
It was an old conundrum: a century ago, the German public became entranced by Clever Hans, a horse that could supposedly add and subtract, and would relay the answer by tapping its hoof. As it turns out, Clever Hans was actually sensing its handler’s bearing. As the horse’s hoof-taps approached the correct answer, the handler’s expression and posture relaxed. The animal’s neural network had not learned arithmetic; it had learned to detect changes in human body language. “That’s the bizarre thing about neural networks,” Thrun said. “You cannot tell what they are picking up. They are like black boxes whose inner workings are mysterious.”
The “black box” problem is endemic in deep learning. The system isn’t guided by an explicit store of medical knowledge and a list of diagnostic rules; it has effectively taught itself to differentiate moles from melanomas by making vast numbers of internal adjustments—something analogous to strengthening and weakening synaptic connections in the brain. Exactly how did it determine that a lesion was a melanoma? We can’t know, and it can’t tell us.
And, in the same vein, here are some thoughts on terrorism.
- Smuggling Nikita Khrushchev’s memoirs out of the USSR
- Are memes disrupting American politics? So asks a Leftist
- The 4th Amendment, policing, and pedagogy
- At least the end of the War on Drugs is nigh
- A new (old) strategy for a polycentric world (but why not federation?)
- A simple map of Brazil and its states
James Surowiecki had an excellent article in the June 9 issue of the New Yorker about countries committing intellectual piracy. It includes a nice summary of how “stealing” patented ideas played a major role in the early economic development of the United States. In the process, it surveys some of the considerable historical evidence debunking the widespread myth that intellectual property is necessary for, or even makes a contribution to, economic growth.