Nightcap

  1. Lake Wobegon’s Ghost Churches Rod Dreher, The American Conservative
  2. The Russian affinity for American stuff continues unabated Guy Archer, Moscow Times
  3. Avoiding World War III in Asia Parag Khanna, National Interest
  4. Did government decentralization cause China’s economic miracle? Hongbin Cai, World Politics

Nightcap

  1. Why Orthodox Christian countries remain stuck Leonid Bershidsky, Bloomberg View
  2. How communist Bulgaria became a leader in tech and sci-fi Victor Petrov, Aeon
  3. Slobodian’s The End of Empire and the Birth of Neoliberalism Henry Farrell, Crooked Timber
  4. Rethinking the unitary executive in American politics Ilya Somin, Volokh Conspiracy

Christianism and Liberalism

In 1929 John Gresham Machen dropped his professorship at Princeton Theological Seminary to establish Westminster Theological Seminary. Machen fought the Theological Liberalism in the seminary and in his denomination (PCUSA) for many years, until he gave up and decided to form a new seminary and eventually a new denomination as well (the Orthodox Presbyterian Church).

Machen’s attitude of abandoning his seminary and his denomination might seem harsh. After all, can’t we all just get along? Theologically he was considered a fundamentalist. His followers are called to this day “Machen’s Warrior Children,” people who are theologically unwilling to compromise.

People have all the right to disagree, but for Machen, some things were not negotiable. That is why he wrote Christianity and Liberalism (1923), a book in which he unapologetically calls Theological Liberalism “another religion,” separated from historical Christianism.

Interestingly, the same Machen who so fiercely opposed theological liberalism was not a conservative regarding politics, because he was suspicious of mixing religion and politics. He found attempts to establish a Christian culture by political means insensitive to minorities. In practical terms, he opposed school prayer and Bible reading in public school. He also opposed Prohibition, something very costly considering that at that time abstinence was common ground among Protestants. In sum, Machen was, politically, a libertarian.

In Road to Serfdom, Hayek observes that Liberal Christians, who don’t believe in the supernatural aspects of the Bible, tend to embrace Social Gospel and tear down the wall of separation between church and state. Machen, on the other hand, was a living proof that a fundamentalist Christian can want nothing but a distance from the government.