But then, again…. many of the names used in the study as typically African-American are Muslim or Arabic in origin: Aisha, Keisha, Hakim, Kareem. The study was conducted in 2001- 02, immediately after the 9/11/2001 attacks on the World Trade Center. It was the most Islamophobic period in recent US history. Yet, the study didn’t consider ethnic or religious bias as factors.
These examples of bias differ fundamentally. The cases of policing and employment entail prejudiced people in positions of power. The example of healthcare research doesn’t, making it “true” systemic bias. It demonstrates the possibility of prejudiced design without a prejudiced designer.